How can concepts and categories help you write an essay

The prof will take the rubric and keep it within reach while grading.

Categories and Concepts - Fall 12222

Along with making notes on your paper, the prof will also check off your performance in each category—summarizing your performance in that category:. If you have a hundred-point paper, each one of these categories is worth 20 points. To get an A on this paper, you have to perform with excellence in 3 categories and above average in at least 2 of the other categories.

At least one of them—formatting—is a gimmie. All it takes is attention to detail—Microsoft Word has all the tools you need to score perfectly there. Focus on Development and Body Paragraphs for your other two. It might seem like a silly thing to do, but an anchor sentence is as vital as a thesis statement. Note that there is nothing about originality in this rubric. In this paper, I will demonstrate my understanding of a linguistic concept I learned this semester and how it relates to my field of study.

I will demonstrate this knowledge by staying organized, using relevant research, and sticking to my thesis statement. Yes, it seems a bit silly. But now you have an anchor. Now all you need to know is where it could all fall off the rails. In this step, you name your strengths and weakness so you know exactly where you stand walking in. Simple as that. Now all you need to do is play to those strengths and be cognizant of the weaknesses. Completing this second step immediately—before you go to bed on the day you get the assignment—is essential to acing this paper.

Set the plan and execute, execute, execute—this is the only way to achieve the results you want. If your time is nebulous, you will be more likely to drop the ball. Keep in mind that one of the crucial ingredients of successful writing is time. You need time to think, research, and create. If you fail to acknowledge this, you will write a crumby paper every time.

Resist the impulse to think of the paper as a hurdle. Make an appointment with the writing center to get a semi-professional set of eyes, and had that paper to a friend for quick notes. Your next step is to organize your time. Most of your sessions should be no more than an hour or two, but some activities—like research—might need to be a bit longer:.

If you notice, most of your writing time will be spent on the front end—creating the first draft of the paper. This is because everything after that will be revisionary. If you stick to this schedule, you will not only complete your paper on time, you will complete it well. Every writer on the planet will tell you that the schedule is the foundation of good writing—the more time you spend in the chair, the better the writing gets.

Free writing is often popular, but it can be really time consuming, and also not particularly helpful for research papers. As well, some profs advise talking it out with a friend, which can be distracting. The best method for this is mapping. Mapping is a technique that allows you to freely record your ideas in a logical manner.

Mapping will give you strong guiding questions as well as demonstrate how your ideas are connected, which is super useful for writing a long research paper. Mapping looks something like this:. Note that the ideas get more specific the further away they are from the center topic.

Chapter 4. What Are You Writing, to Whom, and How? – Writing for Success 1st Canadian Edition

Circle the ones that are most specific and uses them for your paper. So, apply your field of study, your interests, or something topical to the subject. Here are some ideas based upon that….

Essay Writing Part-1 - How to improve Language & Expression for essay writing?

Out of the above, which sounds like it has the most juice? Probably number one. Even without doing any Googling, it seems evident that there will be research in this area that you can draw from. As well, you can rely on non-technical, non-academic observation to give you better ideas—you can use your experience to shape your subject matter. So go with number 1. Take a look at these specific ideas that you can use in your research phase:. And look, you can scroll to the bottom of the page to get a jump on specific articles to use in your research.

As well, 51 mentions your keyword! With our tutorial on writing a thesis statement, you will see thesis examples, ways to craft a thesis sentence, and how to organize your paper around a thesis statement. Second, you will need specific examples to write about. Third, you will need to organize those three items effectively. And, fourth, you will need to make an outline. The first step to creating a successful thesis statement is generating a concise overview of the topic at hand. In this case, technology and the ESL classroom is the topic upon which the paper is based.

So the first portion of your thesis should be a generalized statement that describes the imperatives which make your paper relevant.

Want to learn more about essay writing?

Begin by making a list of why you think your paper topic is relevant. In this case, we could say that…. Sounds pretty good, eh? Teachers who do not embrace technology in their classes risk losing students to academic boredom, not to mention that they will be perceived by their students as tedious and irrelevant. Even better! With adding then subtracting, expanding then consolidating, moving from the general to the specific, you can craft an overview to be used in the thesis.

Also, note the use of old tricks, like opposing vocabulary extracurricular v.


  • Categories and Concepts.
  • research paper on franz kafkas the metamorphosis;
  • Structuring a thesis?

So, check the rubric—did we hit any goals? See Development, Language and vocabulary, and Sentence structure! The problem presented was that instructors take away learning tools from students and replace them with less interesting forms of learning and stop social interaction with the classroom. As well, instructors give little attention to technology-based learning tools as an avenue for education. ESL instructors should make using technology a priority of education, both inside and outside the classroom.

ESL instructors should try to increase digital interactions between students outside of class, use digital technology inside of class, and make digital avenues of education a learning priority. Pretty good, but we can make it sound even more academic. Again, use the Word synonym function, and try to bring out the parallel structure even more:. All we need now is to connect the two sentences together with some kind of sentence, transitional phrase, or conjunction.

In this case as with almost everything in writing, actually keep it simple:. Wait a sec! So use it with abandon, so long as you complete the sentence! Now, check the rubric again! Check and check and check! And, to top it all off, you now have three areas of research to focus on! Often students writing long, research-based papers struggle with smoothly connecting the related ideas within the paper. There are three simple steps.

First, you must identify the relationship between the two ideas. Second, you must craft a transition. And, third, you must be careful of potential pitfalls. See how jarring the logical jump is from the broad statement to the specific assertion? Take a look at the two statements together, as they are color coded—red being broad, blue being specific:.

This idea is loosely connected to another idea the author is writing toward—that those unique cultural differences are often the culprit for communication breakdown. The author sees that the relationship is one of contrasts, so they try to name the contrast to create a connection in the transition—the green text is the merging of contrasts:.

Reading Strategies

Using a really simple, but subtle writing skill, this author used word choice to make deeper connections between the sentences. See the color coded portions:. Not how the ideas from each paragraph come together in the transition.

There is nothing wrong with a transition word here and there, but they are very easy to overuse. Most blogs, like this one , this one , and this one make using transition words an important part of this process. The elegant transition based on nuanced vocabulary is an exceptional student move. This is more than most students have when they hand in a paper. The editing portion has five steps: First, you revise to tighten and clarify.


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  6. Second, you edit for grammar, usage, and mechanics. Third, you give a clean copy to a friend and visit academic support. Fourth, you do your final read through to clean things up. And, fifth, recheck the paper against the rubric. Remember when you were one of those foolish plebes handing in a paper you wrote hours before it was due and hope for an C?

    In the responses, please focus on what issues are most important or interesting and to think about, and what questions are unresolved in the field. Do not give a list of minor questions or flaws. You may skip one weekly response, but any other missed ones will need to be made up. Post your response to the class Piazza page before class the night before would be preferred.

    Your responses will be graded on a check-plus, check, or check-minus basis, with most responses receiving a check. Submit via email with the file name lastname-cc-final. The final paper should address one of the topics covered in the class in more detail. Submit via email with the file name lastname-cc-proposal. You can also discuss your topic with me during office hours. The paper should include a critical review of the literature, along with theoretical conclusions or suggestions for future research.

    I would expect papers to be about 12 pages long, though the exact length is not as important as the quality of thought the paper reveals. We will be using Piazza to post the weekly responses to the readings, and for class discussion in general. Auditing : We have limited room, so please email instructor to see if there are available seats.

    Priority goes to registered students and then by date of audit request. Please see below for the assigned readings for each class to be read before class. View On GitHub. Please note that this syllabus is not final and there may be further adjustments. Pre-requisites This course is for graduate students in cognitive science and related fields.

    All students are expected to have previous coursework in psychology. Computational modeling has been central to the study of concepts and categories.

    Learning Objectives

    This course will cover some of the key modeling proposals in the literature, with a stronger focus on modeling than previous versions of the course. I want this to be a positive for everyone interested in the course, and I will not assume you have a lot of experience with computational modeling. I will try to make the material as understandable as possible, even though we will not have time to cover the basics of cognitive modeling. This course does not require programming or implementing computational models, and I hope you find this aspects of the class interesting regardless of your background.

    Again, computer programming will not be used in this course. Piazza and course discussion We will be using Piazza to post the weekly responses to the readings, and for class discussion in general. Course policies Auditing : We have limited room, so please email instructor to see if there are available seats.

    Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology , 7 4 , Medin, D. Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review , 85, The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review , 92, Barsalou, L. Ad hoc categories. Psychological Review , 99, The adaptive nature of human categorization. Psychological Review , 98 3 , Krizhevsky, A. Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks.

    Optional reference on probability theory Russel, S. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Chapter 13, Uncertainty. Word learning as Bayesian inference. Psychological Review , 2 , Goodman, N. Cognitive Science , 32 1 , Knowledge selection in category learning. In Psychology of learning and motivation Vol.