Eugenicists pointed to the USA as a place where strict laws controlled marriage but where a strong tradition of political freedom existed. Hitler elaborated his Darwinian views by comparing the strong killing the weak to a cat devouring a mouse, concluding that ultimately the Jews must be eliminated because they cause:. In the long run nature eliminates the noxious elements. One may be repelled by this law of nature which demands that all living things should mutually devour one another.
The fly is snapped up by a dragon-fly, which itself is swallowed by a bird, which itself falls victim to a larger bird … to know the laws of nature … enables us to obey them. The government must therefore aid in the elimination, or at least quarantine, of the inferior races. Hitler argued:. If the individual were important in the eyes of nature, nature would take care to preserve him. Once the inferior races were exterminated, Hitler believed that future generations would be eternally grateful for the improvement that his programs brought to humanity:. For this reason it was essential that the Jews should be segregated, otherwise mixed marriages would take place.
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Individuals are not only far less important than the race, but the Nazis concluded that certain races were not human, but were animals:. It was both legal and right to exterminate them in the collectivist and evolutionist viewpoint. They were not considered … persons in the sight of the German government.
The Darwinian revolution and the works of its chief German spokesman and most eminent scientist, Professor Haeckel, gave the racists something that they were confident was powerful verification of their race beliefs. And what greater authority than science could racists have for their views? Konrad Lorenz, one of the most eminent animal-behavior scientists then, and often credited as being the founder of his field, stated that:.
When these inferior elements are not effectively eliminated from a [healthy] population, then—just as when the cells of a malignant tumor are allowed to proliferate throughout the human body—they destroy the host body as well as themselves. The anti-Semitic attitudes of the German people were only partly to blame in causing the holocaust—only when Darwinism was added to the preexisting attitudes did a lethal combination result. The first step in an eugenic program was to determine which groups were genetically superior; a judgment that was heavily influenced by culture. The ideal traits were:.
Although superficial observations enable most people to make a broad classification of race, when explored in depth, race status is by no means easy to determine, as the Nazis soon found out. The Nazis relied heavily upon the work of Hans F. They received wide support throughout the German government, and were an important influence in German policy. Nonetheless, research on the offspring of the experiment concluded that, as is now known, IQ regressed toward the population mean and the IQs of the offspring were generally lower than that of the parents.
Rise of hitler essay higher history revision
Darwinism not only influenced the Nazi attitude toward Jews, but other cultural and ethnic groups as well. Even mental patients were included later, in part because it was then believed that heredity had a major influence on mental illness or they possibly had some Jewish or other non-Aryan blood in them , and consequently had to be destroyed.
Darwin even compiled a long list of cases where he concluded bad blood polluted a whole gene line, causing it to bear impure progeny forever. Numerous respected biologists, including Ernst Ruedin of the University of Munich and many of his colleagues such as Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and Eugene Kahn, later a professor of psychiatry at Yale, actively advocated this hereditary argument.
The groups judged inferior were gradually expanded to include a wide variety of races and national groups. Later, it even included less healthy older people, epileptics, both severe and mild mental defectives, deaf-mutes, and even some persons with certain terminal illnesses.
Some evolutionists even advocated the view that women were evolutionarily inferior to men. He concluded that because the weaker women were not eliminated as rapidly due to this protection, a slower rate of evolution resulted and for this reason natural selection was less operative on women than men. Women in Nazi Germany were openly prohibited from entering certain professions and were required by law to conform to a traditional female role.
Hitler not only unabashedly intended to produce a superior race, but he openly relied heavily upon Darwinian thought in both his extermination and war policies. Clark concludes, quoting extensively from Mein Kampf , that:. There would be nothing but decay in the whole of nature if this were not so. States which [violate] … this elementary law would fall into decay. He who does not wish to fight in this world where permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the right to exist.
German greatness, Hitler stressed, came about primarily because they were jingoists, and thereby had been eliminating their weaker members for centuries. The view that eradication of the weaker races was a major source of evolution was well expressed by Wiggam:. In other words, war is positive in the long run because only by lethal conflicts can humans evolve. Hitler even claimed as truth the contradiction that human civilization as we know it would not exist if it were not for constant war.
And many of the leading scientists of his day openly advocated this view: Haeckel was especially fond of praising the ancient Spartans, whom he saw as a successful and superior people as a consequence of their socially approved biological selection.
However, the common assumption that European civilization evolved far more than others, primarily because of its constant warmongering in contrast to other nations, is false. War is actually typical of virtually all peoples, except certain small island groups who have abundant food, or peoples in very cold areas. Much of the opposition to the eugenic movement came from German Christians. He clearly had strong, even vociferous, anti-Christian feelings as an adult, as did probably most Nazi party leaders.
As a consummate politician, though, he openly tried to exploit the church.
The State must remain the absolute master. When I was younger, I thought it was necessary to set about [destroying religion] … with dynamite. The final state must be … in St. Our peoples had previously succeeded in living all right without this religion. I have six divisions of SS men absolutely indifferent in matters of religion. As Keith noted, the Nazi party viewed Darwinism and Christianity as polar opposites.
In this respect the hand of Christianity is against that of Nature, for are not the races of mankind the evolutionary harvest which Nature has toiled through long ages to produce? May we not say, then, that Christianity is anti-evolutionary in its aim? The opposition to religion was a prominent feature of German science, and thus later German political theory, from its very beginning.go site
Hitler's Rise to Power
To argue otherwise was backward superstition. And, of course, it was organized religion which did this and thus stood in the way of scientific and social progress. Furthermore, Nazi and Christian concepts are incompatible because Christianity is built:. On the other hand, National Socialism is based on scientific foundations. National Socialism, however, if it wants to fulfil its task further, must always guide itself according to the newest data of scientific researches. Therefore, by means of such pseudo-sciences as theology, they take great pains to suppress or falsify scientific research.
Our National Socialist world view stands on a much higher level than the concepts of Christianity, which in their essentials were taken over from Judaism. For this reason, too, we can do without Christianity. Only the born weakling can view this as cruel, but he, after all, is only a weak and limited man; for if this law did not prevail, any conceivable higher development Hoherentwicklung of organic living beings would be unthinkable.
A literature review shows that German racism would have had a difficult time existing if the historical creation position, void of race curse theories, had been widely accepted. Relatively few scientific studies exist which directly deal with Darwinism and Nazism—and many evolutionists avoid the subject because evolution is inescapably selectionist. One of the best reviews of Darwinism and Nazism documents clearly that Nazism felt confident that their programs of extermination was firmly based on evolution science.
Paraphrasing the words of Hitler, those who ignore the lessons of history are condemned to repeat it. Rise of hitler essay higher history Hitler research paper higher level exam is 2 hours and 30 minutes long and you must do 6 questions there is a choice in question 6. Rise of hitler essay higher history. BBC - Higher Bitesize History - Hitler's rise to Power : Revision self evaluation essays american graffiti film analysis essay franciscan values in action essays on the great islam and christianity comparison essay introduction..
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